Medical Equipment

medical equipment

How to buy and sell medical equipment used in online auction sites

The medical team is evolving constantly due to changes in technology. Technology is changing day by day. Originally a large proportion of facilities used cutting edge Medical Equipment. But, who has the money to update their equipment regularly?

The Medical and laboratory equipment used, however, is far from being obsolete. In many cases, it can be very useful for medical services that might not have much money to buy new equipment. They are finding the secondary market as a way to offer their patients the best care in a way they can afford. Medflip Inc. is a new site that offers buyers and sellers a convenient way to buy and sell medical equipment and laboratory equipment online through their site that is convenient for both parties.

Using an auction site medical team is one of the best ways for a health professional can buy a better quality used medical equipment and laboratory equipment at a price you can afford. Medical equipment is one of the biggest expenses in a health care facility and most health professionals are replacing old equipment with new equipment all the time.

Beginners in the practice can offer their services to med professionals – who may then outsource this when they shop online looking for other items. You can use the fact that many hospitals and clinics are selling medical items and their replacements of new equipment by purchasing used equipment at a price they can afford. You do not need a team. They have the latest in medical consultation to better serve their clients. There are many clinics and facilities for the poor who have no access to devices and physicians should provide the best care to their patients.

With the purchase of used medical equipment such as equipment & laboratory devices, etc. They can use an online auction site. Even if it is old equipment, the retail clinic can receive a consultation. This can help give their patients better care and save money at the same time. The team comes in Medflip from around the world and can be used worldwide to provide care to patients who otherwise would not have access to these facilities. The buyers can use the equipment used medical appearing in Medflip Inc. to get the best price for the issue of suppliers.

Sellers can sell unwanted equipment to the buyers who really can use this product in this online auction site. When medical professionals visit Medflip, they’ll have no difficulty finding the used medical equipment their looking for, as everything is easily identifiable for easy navigation. In addition to medical equipment, you’ll also find on this site dental equipment. There is also a section for laboratory equipment that can be used by health professionals and even med schools.

This equipment can help medical professionals to perform the tests required by patients in the same office. You can find x-ray machines, examination tables and chairs when you access the site online. This site is particularly beneficial for the physicians private sector who seek to save money on their practice while providing the best care to their patients, at the same time. Sellers can enjoy Medflip Inc. to dispose of laboratory equipment or medical equipment they no longer need or it is no longer used, instead of letting it stay in storage. This might help recover part of their expenses in purchasing new equipment. It might also help others to have access to the installation of medical equipment that they could not otherwise afford. About the Author

You can save money by going to an online auction site like Medflip Inc to look for Used Medical Equipment. Purchasing Used Medical Equipment enables facilities that might not otherwise be able to afford this equipment a chance to better serve their patients.

Medical Equipment

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One Response to “Medical Equipment”

  1. Majaliwa Mbogella Says:

    Submitted By: Children Care Development Organization (CCDO)
    Project Title: Proposal for HIV/AIDS prevention through Improving Primary Health Care and AIDS Research in Rural Tanzania.
    Duration: 5 Years
    Location: Mkimbizi Village, Nduli Division, Iringa District, Iringa Region- Tanzania / East Africa.
    Fund Requested: Medical Aid Equipments
    Account Name: CCDO, Account No: 01J1023036400 CRD BANK.
    Time Frame: Immediately after the approval of this project
    Contact Person:
    1. Country Director Mama Kilipwa Mwambwa, P.O.Box 1751, Iringa Tanzania. Email., Mobile: +255754676264/ +255655676264.
    2. Country Programme Manager Dr. Beatrice Mosha, P.O.Box 1751 Iringa –Tanzania. Email.
    3. Majaliwa Mbogella Executive Director, P.O.Box 1751 Iringa –Tanzania. Mail: or
    Name of the Hospital: International Children Health & AIDS Research Center.
    1.0 Name of the Project
    Proposal for Improving Primary Health Care and Health Education in Rural Tanzania.
    2.0 Location
    Mkimbizi Village, Iringa District, Iringa Region- Tanzania / East Africa.
    3.0 Organisation Information / Group Information.

    The name of our organization is Children Care Development Organization (CCDO). The Organization was formed by the below listed women members purposely to restore human security to the destitute orphans and women who are affected /infected by HIV/AIDS and poverty and related gender based violence.
    Children Care Development Organisation (CCDO) formerly Christ Care Development Foundation was created by several local volunteers who came together to create an International Children Primary Health and AIDS Research Center. The group soon focused its efforts on the growing number of OVCs, and decided to create a safe environment where the children are fed, educated, and provided with health care. A school was built that currently serves 51 children. In addition, 32 children are provided with home-based care from the volunteer counselors and housemothers. The organization also provides health care clinic services, counseling, and awareness programs as an integrated approach to the needs of the community. Again, the organisation owes three Internet centers and two tailoring embroidery centers within Iringa Municipality for the reducing children poverty through practical ICT solutions under the sponsorships of Computers 4 Africa and the World Computer Exchange, Inc.

    3.1.0 Location and Address of the Organisation

    Children care Development Organization, Bock No. 437 Mtwivila, P.O. Box 1751, Iringa- Tanzania. Tel. +255754813368 Email:, Website:

    3.1.1 Method of Communication

    Our preferred methods of communication are Post and E-mail.

    3.1.2 List of Organisation Members and their contacts

    a) Dr.Majaliwa Mayova Mbogella (M) – Executive Director, Email:
    Tel: +255754813368
    b) Hon. Miss Ritta Kabati (MP) – Organisation Development Expert Consultant, Email:, Tel: 0754281188
    c) Christina Kilipwa Mwambwa (F) – Country Director, Email:
    Tel: +255754676264
    d) Dr. Beatrice Mosha (F) – Country Programme Manager, Email:
    Tel: +255713311009
    e) Joseph Mchome (M) – Health Co-ordinator, Email:
    Tel: +255767536933
    f) Christina Sanga (F)- Deputy Director, Email:
    g) Mary Prosper- (F) – Project manager, Email:
    h) Consitasia Mbogella (F) – Accountant, Mobile: +255752950315,
    i) Rev.Upendo Filangali Koko (F) – Programme Coordinator,
    Mobile:+255755249494, E-mail:
    j) Dr. Tuliza Mbilinyi (F) – Counsellor and Community Mobilizer,
    Mobile: +255784546974, E-mail:
    3.1.3 Governing Organization
    Children Care Development Organization (formerly Christ Care Development Foundation). (A trust registered in 2010 under the Non-Governmental Organizations Act, 2002 Made under section 12 (2) of Act No. 24 of 2002 and United Republic of Tanzania at the Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children with Registration No. (OoNGO/ 00003818) and mandate to operate nationally.

    3.1.4 Date of Registration
    The Children Care Development Organisation was officially registered on 13th day of April, 2010 by the Ministry of Development, Gender and Children of the United Republic of Tanzania.

    3.1.5 Brief Description of the CCDO
    The Organization was formed in 2008 with the purpose of improving the quality of life for most children and women living with HIV/AIDS in risky environments through the construction of International Children Primary Health Center, Orphanage ICT Center and school, and to provide homes for vulnerable orphans through the promotion of ICT adolescent reproductive health education, sexuality education, entrepreneurship skills and to promote the advancement of women’s rights and gender equality in law and practice, and the empowerment of women to ensure participation in the democratic processes.

    3.1.6 Mission
    The mission of the Children Care Development Organization is to fight against HIV / AIDS and Childhood Cancer and to find drugs that can disable three particular proteins associated with neuroblastoma, one of the most frequently occurring solid tumors in children. Identifying these drugs could potentially make the disease much more curable when combined with chemotherapy treatment and to improve the treatment of patients suffering from breast cancer as a means of achieving MDGs 4 and 5 which is aimed at improving maternal, neonatal and child health by ensuring universal access to quality maternal health services”.

    3.1.7 Vision
    Reduced child mortality through universal access to effective family planning information services to all Tanzanians.
    3.1.8 Guiding Philosophy
    The philosophy and experience of CCDO is based on the reality that every human being is a unique individual and that we all have a right to good health and basic needs and should access means to a comfortable life in one way or another.

    3.1.9 Core Values
    Equality for all: God made all people equal; our organization is committed to a development process that promotes equality.
    Rights and dignity for all: CCDO believes in and strives to uphold the rights and dignity of all people especially in the rural communities.

    Stewardship: CCDO believes in God to protect the dignity of every body to exploit the Earthy goods in accordance with God’s Law and individual order.

    Institutional partnership in development: CCDO welcome and respects on going International initiatives and national policies to take care and give support to childhood cancer, AIDS / HIV and disadvantaged people fight poverty, ignorance and diseases such as Malaria, Immunisable diseases and HIV/AIDS. Our activities will be unison and collaboration with other stakeholders.
    3.2.0 Aim of the project
    For improving primary health care and health education in rural Tanzania through the construction of affordable primary health care and health education research center since the selected village area is named as a disaster zone for having large infection of HIV, malaria infection, high death rate of children and women pregnancy and is overpopulated, yet there is no any hospital/ health center/ dispensary and people they travel for 6 hours to the near Iringa Government hospital to get medical services.
    3.2.1 Project goal
    Our goal is to incorporate 1000 PHCs into the program in the first phase spanning 5 years: 2012-2016. Initially, PHCs will be selected in the Mkimbizi village of Iringa district –Iringa region: subsequently, additional PHCs will be selected throughout Tanzania. While the entire 1000 PHCs will become operational within the initial 24 months, they will require another 2-3 years to achieve their desired full and effective capabilities. This will be accomplished in coordination with State agencies and NGOs. Based on the material aid application presented above, we anticipate to be given hospital tool kits toward this. Since each PHC reaches between 20,000-60,000 people, this modest start will address issues of primary health care and health education for about 2.3 million Tanzanian (6% of the total) in rural areas. It is hard to believe that investing $ 12 per person per year will make such a BIG difference in the lives of so many. We feel confident that it will.

    3.2.2 The Project Dream and Request
    Our big project dream is to be assisted hospital kits and laboratory medical equipments because we believe that once we will be given hospital tool kits, laboratory medical equipments, and midwives kits automatically the CCDO Primary Health Center will start up immediately to operate its medical services. Also, the CCDO will share consignment cost once we will be ordered to do so. Again we beg you to support us 26 medical surgical doctors, laboratory technician and pharmacist volunteers.

    3.2.3 Project Purpose
    a) To reduce infant mortality rate from 80 per 1000 live births to 50 per 1000 live births
    b) To reduce maternal mortality rate from 4.50 to 2.80 per 1000 live births.
    c) To provide health and nutrition education to the community people for prevention of AIDS, STD and HIV.
    d) To raise nutritional level of pregnant women through health programmes
    e) To give support on sanitation and pure drinking water
    f) To provide nutritious food to children.
    g) To develop the health status of the women and children and make them aware socially to live with dignity and honour.

    3.2.4 Reasons of the Project Establishment
    The major reason of the establishment of this International Primary Health and Research Center is to provide: health care to rural communities through PHCs, outpatient services; preventive services including vaccination, maternity and postpartum and well-baby care; common laboratory tests; health education; health training programmes, health care clinic services, HIV and AIDS prevention, counseling services, family planning education, to support childhood and breast cancer patients, health education and disease prevention, emergency care and stabilization of patients for transport to Iringa referral hospital hospital; some inpatient services. This will result in reduced infant/ child/ maternal mortality and make primary health services available to these rural inhabitants. This project will serve the 17,000 inhabitants of Iringa district and the surrounding villages of Mkimbizi, Kihesa Kilolo, Mtwivila, Nduli, Mgongo, Kigonzile, Igingilanyi, Igeleke etc.

    3.2.5 Past Activities
    a) During the year 2009 and 2010 we has already purchased 15 acres of land at Nduli Airport village for the construction of children home and school and farm fishing project as a means of income generation to our NGO development at large.
    b) We paid tuition fees for 21 most vulnerable children selected to Form One in 2011 and 2012 at Mtwivila secondary school.
    c) During 2011 up to February, 2012 we managed to construct our own International Children Primary Health and AIDS Research Center but with no laboratory equipments and other products including midwives tool kits, surgical equipments, clinical analyzer products, ultrasound scanner products, monitoring equipment products, ECG machine, autoclave sterilizer, medical consumable, laboratory chemicals, hospital furniture, laboratory glassware’s, an X-ray generator.

    3.2.6 Current Activities
    a) We work by reducing community poverty through practical ICT solutions and other related vocational training activities targeted to most vulnerable children living in risky environments.
    b) We work on searching investor donor who can join with us through the provision of laboratory medical equipments and midwives tool kits for our International Children Primary Health and AIDS Research Center.
    c) Training women on ICT and tailoring activities as a means to promote entrepreneurship skills and women participation in civic education for their well being.
    d) Offering counseling activities to most vulnerable children having cancer and those people living with HIV/AIDS within Iringa district.

    3.2.7 Project Achievements
    a) In 2010 and 2011 we obtained 138 computers from Computers 4 Africa (UK) and World Computer Exchange Incl (U.S.A.)
    b) On February 10, 2011 we obtained different varieties of books titled Where There is No Doctor: A Village Health Care Handbook, Where Women Have No Doctor: A Health Guide for Women etc from Hesperian Publishing for Community Health and Empowerment based in U.S.A.
    c) We have already purchased 15 acres of land at Nduli Airport Village within Iringa district
    d) We opened Bank Account at CRDB Tanzania Bank and with account number: 01J1023036400
    e) We conducted fundraise event at Samora Stadium within Iringa Municipality where the Prime Minister Fredrick T. Sumaye was the guest of honor and other dignitaries prominence Bishops, Regional Commissioners, District Commissioners and others honorable Members of Parliaments just visit our website for more information about us. The obtained money was injected to the construction of Orphanage ICT Center and School and the construction is still going on.
    f) The CCDO is connected with Face Book and Twitter networking and with its website as above explanation.
    g) Support community outreach work, disabled children, orphans, widows, youth groups and women’s empowerment through capacity building
    h) In April 16,2011 we received children education kits and other toys from the Operation Christmas Child Samaritan’s Purse which is based in U.S.A. (www.samaritan’
    i) In this year 2012, the Embassy of Japan promised to finance us by giving 541 million Tshs for the new project known “Environmental Conservation through Forest Restoration Initiatives against Environmental Destruction and provision of Livelihood for Community (ECOFRIENDLC) Project” in Kilimajaro region at Same and Mwanga rural districts and at Makete rural district in Iringa region through the promotion of fish farming and bee keeping as a means of poverty reduction to AIDS families.
    j) Widows – empowering women to demand their rights before and after the death of their husbands and inform their legal rights including property ownership and will making to their families to avoid family conflicts.
    k) Finally, we managed to have our own International Children Primary Health and AIDS Research center from our own resources.

    3.2.8 Problem Statements
    Thousands of people in Iringa district live in the rural areas where health facilities are inadequate, inaccessible, and unaffordable. Children Care Development Organisation in the area collaborates with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare to offer medical services to our clients through material and technical advice. Our current dispensary is not large enough to meet the rising demand for medical services in Iringa. We currently have a one-room clinic, a one X-ray room, 2 laboratory rooms, 3 wards and each contain 15 hospital beds, where we can serve 120 people a day, and have administration block that is equipped with 45 computers. We are also faced with an insufficient drug supply and surgical equipments in the Center. However, the constructed International Children Primary Health Center is lacking laboratory medical equipments, 2 X-ray, midwives kits, Nurses, Surgical equipments and 2 Ultrasound for the start up of hospital services. In addition to funds to facilitate all-around management. The International Primary Health and AIDS Research Center also lacks a laboratory tool kits to facilitate medical investigation for effective holistic clinical management.

    Iringa region is one of the most HIV/AIDS and childhood cancer affected region in Tanzania. It is estimated that 15.9% of the population living in Iringa Region are HIV and childhood positive, the Iringa district has a population of 115,000 (census of 2002) therefore nearly 15,000 people are living with HIV and AIDS while childhood cancer and women breast cancer are still threatening the Iringan people but the rural people are the one’s who suffer a lot.
    Within the selected area there are no health services facilities in the village. People have to walk an average of 16 kms to the nearest health service facility in Iringa Municipality. During meetings with the village leaders it was explained that because of the long distances that people have to travel, most pregnant women prefer to deliver at home and attended by untrained traditional midwifes who cannot diagnose and handle obstetric complications. Thus pregnant mothers run into great risk getting and suffering of excessive bleeding that may result in death or other various disabilities including fistula. Two women with fistula problems were identified in 2004 by the organisation and taken to hospital for repair. It was observed that there is a need for safe motherhood education to the community with the aim to promote good safe motherhood practices in the village.
    Additionally, the household’s surrounding are not hygienically kept and because most diseases that occur in area are preventable at household level as most of them are water related diseases. For instance it was reported that about 120 households have good usable pit latrine, 134 with poor latrines and 45 household have no pit latrine. Concerning the water, the village is served by five shallow wells which are not evenly distributed and are located very far from most of households.
    The government policy on water states that at least one water point particularly shallow or medium depth borehole should serve at least 250 households and that people should not walk more than 1,000 meters to obtain water. However the majority of the households are served by traditional water sources and village very often experiences water shortages during the dry season. This causes a burden for the women because they are the ones who traditionally fetch water and nurture families. This is so pronounced during dry seasons.
    In 2007, 30.8 million adults and 2.5 million children were living with HIV. MTCT, which can occur during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding, is responsible for over 90 per cent of paediatric infections. The risk of paediatric infection is higher in countries with high HIV prevalence in women. Sub-Saharan Africa, where women represent 61 per cent of adults living with HIV, accounted for 90 per cent of the 420,000 children newly infected with HIV in 2007. Despite the reported decline in HIV prevalence among young pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in 11 sub-Saharan African countries, prevalence remains high in some countries (UNAIDS: 2007).

    While, CCDO research has shown that women often refuse HIV testing or abandon medical care because they fear revealing their HIV status to husbands. Testing of both parents increases the knowledge and understanding of the man and allows him to take increased responsibility for his own health and for that of his wife or other sexual partner and family. The narrow usage of ‘mother-to-child’ transmission may undermine women’s rights by focusing the responsibility for children solely on women. The term ‘mother-to-child’ also risks labelling women as the main bearers of the disease to their offspring. Some organisations and service providers have thus chosen to use the term ‘parent-to-child’ transmission interventions (PPTCT) which acknowledges responsibilities of both parents.

    3.2.9 Possible Solutions
    The primary problems in the area include the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, poverty, drought, incapacitation due to illness, and a growing number of orphaned and vulnerable children (OVCs). To combat these problems, CCDO currently supports approximately 250 OVCs and 103 People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) by fulfilling their nutritional and clinical needs and providing them with shelter, clothing, and education. However, it was recognized that working in partnership with donor investor might be the proper panacea to the succession of this project. This partnership can be considered as the positive transformation from lacking laboratory medical and midwives kits to the availability of all necessity medical and surgical equipments including drugs and contribute to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5.
    The Village Life Outreach Mkimbizi offers an opportunity to work with local leaders and plan projects that alleviate suffering in the local populations. The International Primary Health Care and Research Center have been vital in helping build relationships with the local peoples and support an environment of trust. The focus is not only on treatment of disease but also on disease prevention. Education at the time of treatment is combined with long term projects that focus on prevention. Projects such as the water filters built by the Life Team and the Mosquito Net Project help prevent recurrence and further spread of common diseases.
    In spite of the efforts of CCDO, there are still many unmet needs in International Children Primary Health and AIDS Research Center within the center. With additional laboratory medical equipments aid CCDO will be able to expand and improve its services to the community, including: Providing healthcare to OVCs and PLWHAs, ensuring that 250 OVCs complete basic education, providing OVCs with adequate and secure shelter, improving the psychosocial well-being of 250 OVCs and 1500 PLWHAs, improving the nutritional status and food security of OVCs and PLWHAs and fighting social stigma and improving legal rights of OVCs and PLWHAs.
    3.3.0 Previous financial Assistance from other Sources
    The CCDO has not yet received any funds from external donor(s) but it operated from its her sources of funds coming from membership fees, Kihesa Internet center charges, Mshindo Internet Center charges, Makete Internet charges, Mshindo design, embroidery and tailoring center fees, computer training fees, facilitation charges, medical registration fees, CCDO pharmacy shop, and health Research consultancy services.
    3.3.1 Bank Account Information
    The CCDO has a bank account at Tanzania CRDB Bank as named above and with three signatories as such the Executive Director, Country Program Manager and the NGO Accountant. The Account has 1 million Tshs only.
    3.3.2 Affiliations with other Organisation
    The CCDO was working and will continue to work with other sectors/ organisation network which are Project donor, District Social Welfare Office, Iringa District Council, Iringa Municipal Council, Iringa Public Health Institutes, Iringa Governmental Hospital, Ipamba Roman Catholic Hospital, Iringa Disable Organisation, Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, CBRT Dar es Salaam Ocean Road Hospital, Muhimbili Government Hospital, KCMC Moshi Hospital (Lutheran Church, Ikonda Roman Catholic Hospital, and Bulongwa Lutheran Hospital.
    4.0 Description of the Proposed Project
    4.1.0 Objectives
    The objective is to improve and enhance the services offered by Primary Health Centers (PHCs) in the rural communities of Tanzania. We propose to do this by applying novel solutions that take advantage of developments in harnessing solar power, computers, and information technology. Our strategy is to use technology to provide effective early medical intervention, deliver expert health care, and minimize the inconvenience caused to patients and health-workers from poor logistics and long travel time. An equally important role of PHCs is to provide health education emphasizing family planning, HIV/AIDS prevention and malaria control, hygiene, sanitation, and prevention of communicable diseases. A final step in this process will happen through video consulting and examination, a technology we anticipate becoming available in rural areas by year 2014 since we have managed to construct our own an independent Primary Health Care and Health Education center at Mkimbizi Village in Iringa region within Iringa district of Tanzania including training & research (With own infrastructure.), also within the constructed health center we already equipped primary health care and health education Operation Theatre and laboratory, including a unit centre for HIV/AIDS counseling and training workshop hall in which the hall will be used to provide quality care, treatment and supportive services to all HIV positive pregnant women and children to prevent parent to child transmission of the disease. Other objectives are:-

    a) To identify and conduct interviews with the key national and local stakeholders and explore the structure, components, implementation, co ordination, financing, policies, and guidelines and monitoring system of the PMTCT programmes

    b) Knowledge, attitudes and practices of rural men and women are improved with regards to gender issues and to increase proportion of pregnant women receiving antenatal care from 60% to 80%.

    c) To reduce Maternal Mortality from 800 to 250 per 100, 000 live births by 2015 through the provisional of free obstetric kits for midwives and to reduce the incidence of low birth weight from 14.5% to 10%.

    d) To reduce Neonatal Mortality from 48 per 1000 live births to 18 by 2015 and to build effective partnership between communities based institutions/ organizations and facility based health providers in all targeted communities.
    4.1.1 Background History
    The background history of this project goes back to the truth that Children Care Development Organisation (CCDO) aim is to have a development health center to one district in Iringa region in which there is high death rate of children and pregnancies women who lack medical hospital care as a strategy to reduce child mortality, maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera and other diseases, improve maternal health and rescue vulnerable people from poverty disease. This project is being proposed as the solutions to prevent HIV / AIDS, child mortality and maternal health while the conducted research by CCDO has discovered that malaria is a leading cause of death in Africa, second only to HIV/AIDS. In Tanzania, there are approximately 20 million clinical cases of malaria per year, resulting in 100,000 deaths—80% of which are in children under 5 years of age. In Africa, a child dies of malaria every 30 seconds. In addition to illness and death, malaria infections also cause parents to miss days at work leading to lower incomes and children to miss school days and educational opportunities. Additionally, treatment for malaria often requires a trip to the nearest hospital which is nearly a day’s walk away. On the 2011 Village Life Outreach Iringa district, malaria was identified as the number one health concern by the village leaders.
    During meetings with the village leaders it was explained that because of the long distances that people have to travel, most pregnant women prefer to deliver at home and attended by untrained traditional midwifes who cannot diagnose and handle obstetric complications. Thus pregnant mothers run into great risk getting and suffering of excessive bleeding that may result in death or other various disabilities including fistula. Two women with fistula problems were identified in 2011 by the organization and taken to hospital for repair. It was observed that there is a need for safe motherhood education to the community with the aim to promote good safe motherhood practices in the village including HIV/AIDS prevention education. Unfortunately, when they was asked whether they know issues relating to family planning, the answer was no.
    Despite the above issues, the area is mostly hit by HIV/AIDS. The rapid spread of HIV/AIDS is also directly related to social –cultural and economic factors. These include the traditional practice of widow inheritance, prolonged drinking and unsafe sexual practices. Increasing economic difficulties and intensifying poverty have also contributed significantly towards the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Iringa district. The poor, both young men and women, are compelled to migrate in order to search for better economic opportunities. While some girls who work as domestic workers may resort to practicing survival sex because the money they are paid as domestic workers is not enough, those young men leave their village alone frequently patronize prostitutes and other women in order to satisfy their sexual desire, and as a result many of them become infected with HIV/AIDS.
    4.1.2 The Village’s Priorities
    CCDO carried rapid needs assessment in the village in November 2010 to assess the community’s priorities. It found that the community’s priorities since 2004 have been a Primary Health Care and Research Center , which ranked first followed by an independent Family Planning Centre including training and research, a well-equipped mobile Family Planning Operation Theatre, teachers’ Staff houses, ambulance transport, Min Bus for the Centre, and transport infrastructure.

    4.1.3 Project Needs Analysis
    The people of the rural area are the most under privileged downtrodden mass, for them quality health care is still a dream to come. Though there are big hospitals in Dar es Salaam City and Kilimanjaro region accessing the same by them is not an easy one. Coming to town a problem and more so in case of the sick and needy as the cost of transportation, stands in between. The only remedy would be take the hospital to a rural area, and provide a state of art hospital, with all facility, including 200 beds and such other facility that would make it par with the best ones that are available to the urban masses. This hospital would act as a health hub for the villages and other Tanzanian regions that surround the project area.

    The long-term goal of the Tanzanian government and international funding agencies has been to provide health care to rural communities through PHCs. However, even with large funding, these centers have not been successful for a variety of reasons that include lack of decent facilities, equipment for performing even simple laboratory tests, etc. Even more important is a social reality: there just are not enough trained and qualified doctors to adequately serve the entire urban and rural populations of Tanzania even if we could provide financial incentives for them to work in rural areas. Since we believe that the dearth of doctors willing to practice in rural areas and their reluctance to travel to, let alone live in, remote areas will continue to exist for a long time to come, we have incorporated this reality into our planning from the start as described in this proposal. Our plan, therefore, is to increase the effectiveness of doctors who are willing to work in rural areas by a large factor. This can be accomplished by reducing the need for doctors in the initial screening of patients, and by allocating one physician for every five PHCs. Simultaneously; we plan to make working at PHCs more attractive and satisfying.

    The result of non-functioning PHCs has been that, in many cases, diseases are not diagnosed in their early stages nor treated. The rural population has to often travel to urban areas when they can no longer bear the suffering caused by the disease, thus increasing the load on hospitals in urban areas and ending up with serious complications that, in many cases, could have easily been treated at their early stages. The need to rectify this problem has become critical especially given the fact that over 25 million people live in rural areas across the country with poor awareness of health issues. This ignorance, coupled with the increased mobility between rural and urban areas, has led to an explosive increase in the spread of diseases like HIV/AIDS, malaria, typhoid and Hepatitis B and C.
    We envisage PHCs functioning as the first level in a hierarchical system of health care facilities. At this primary level, PHCs will play two equally important roles: First, diagnosis of diseases based on symptoms and simple laboratory tests, and their treatment either at the centers or through referral. Second, health education leading to family planning, diabetes control, HIV/AIDS and malaria prevention, better hygiene and sanitation, and prevention of communicable diseases, especially sexually transmitted diseases.
    The government has shown keen interest in finding private partners to revitalize the PHCs. To this end The Children Care Development Organization (CCDO), in collaboration with the Government of Iringa Region, has initiated a pilot project involving one PHC covering some 450,000 people in the Iringa Rural District. Five more PHCs will soon be included in the pilot project. The goal is to build on the existing “infrastructure” at these PHCs, make them functional and enhance their capability. The CCDO will coordinate and manage this proposed project.
    4.1.4 Steps in the Process of Enhancing the Capabilities of the PHC
    The first step is to furbish the existing PHCs (land, building, equipment, and supplies) already set up by the government. We anticipate each PHC to consist of an initial screening room with a computer, an examination room for the doctor, a laboratory for medical tests and supplies, and toilets. The furnishing will be simple, comfortable, and durable. However, the Iringa District Council has already granted 15 acres of land to CCDO where we managed to construct this International Children Primary Health Care and Research Center and the remained land is for children development creative art center and school.
    The most critical infrastructure element is electricity. We propose to use either solar panels or diesel generators (depending on a cost-benefit analysis) connected to batteries for uninterrupted electric power for computers and laboratory equipment. Such units have already been field tested by The CCDO Technician at its Kihesa ICT Center for economically disadvantaged children, CCDO management, and will assure the operation of equipment for much of the day even when conventional electric power is unavailable.
    Each PHC will have a full time staff consisting of a paramedic individual to perform initial screening with the computer, a trained nurse or physicians’ assistant, and a laboratory technician. We anticipate that a qualified medical doctor will be shared between 3-5 PHCs in a given area. Training of this staff in the novel technology and in the holistic approach we are proposing will be extensive and continuous, and their performance will be monitored constantly as described in Appendices B and C.
    In addition to the testing capability of the on-site medical laboratory, a crucial tool for diagnosis will be the computer. A software program called EDPS2000 shall assist the technician in maintaining, in a protected and confidential manner, the medical history of all patients, in suggesting tests to perform, and to evaluate possible causes based on the symptoms displayed or the description given by the patient. It will also incorporate the medical history in making the probable diagnosis. In addition, based on this diagnosis, it will also prescribe medicines for minor illnesses, which will be sold at cost by the PHC. In cases of probable major illnesses or when the diagnosis is not clear, the computer output will propose a future course of action—further tests and possibly a visit to a specialist. In the latter case, the computer will print out the patient’s relevant/essential history that can be taken to the specialist. We anticipate that the majority of cases will be handled at the level of PHCs, thus drastically cutting down the burden placed on hospitals and doctors. A brief description of the EDPS2000 software is given later and in Appendix D.
    Patients visiting PHCs will also be provided health education by the staff through posters and through audiovisual demonstrations. Providing information and help with family planning, and awareness on communicable diseases, will be a key role of the staff. Community programs for which we shall form collaborations with Non-Governmental Agencies (NGOs) and social workers will supplement these activities.
    At present we envisage each PHC to be an isolated unit. All software updates and sharing of information would have to be uploaded/downloaded periodically by a person traveling from center to center. We plan to connect each PHC to its assigned doctor through wireless communications and a palm computer. Over a three-year time frame we propose to connect the computers at different PHCs through standard telephone and/or cell phone link to a central coordination/support center. The central facility will then be able to collect and update the data from all PHCs within its jurisdiction, and perform pattern detection and epidemiological analysis, thereby predicting epidemics and exposing widespread health problems in their early stages. In addition to simplifying the uploading/downloading of data onto the central computer, this enhancement will allow on-line access to specialists via e-mail, further reducing patient’s travel time and cost and the load on urban health care facilities.
    As a final step, we anticipate enhancing the diagnostic capability of PHCs through video consultations wherein the patient (through the PHC) will access a physician (and even a specialist) via a two-way video camera and screen. We anticipate that this technology and the required transmission rate using cellular connections will become a reality in rural Tanzania in 5-10 years.
    4.1.5 Health Education and Disease Prevention
    Rural Tanzania faces many very serious problems. Notable amongst them are potable water, emerging pandemics, population control, good hygiene and sanitation practices, basic education, and simple techniques for improving their crops and lives (see Appendix C). One cannot expect to upgrade the people’s health without simultaneously making an impact on these issues, and vice versa. We will, therefore, train and empower the staff at the PHCs to spread awareness on some of these issues, build trust within the community, and to take a holistic approach to health care.
    Using the telephone link to the central facility, relevant training and educational material and specific health instructions will be periodically transmitted to the computers at all PHCs and the status of various educational programs will be monitored.
    4.1.6 Community Involvement
    For the PHCs to be effective, people have to believe that the PHCs are there to serve them and to provide value. To facilitate this we plan to involve the local population in the operation and in the community outreach programs. We also plan to encourage cultural activities, self-help programs, and health education through the PHCs. The monitoring role of The CCDO will be to evaluate the performance of PHCs and to provide guidance. Evaluation will be based on one simple criterion — whether the PHCs have significantly improved the health and well being of the community.
    The Early Detection & Prevention System (EDPS2000) is a software system adopted by the Children Care Development Organization management in this project, the founder of The CCDO, a non-profit trust. It can provide early diagnosis of patient’s health status. EDPS2000 screens patients and identifies those who need prompt attention by qualified physicians, while recommending treatment for others with minor illnesses.
    It provides a probable diagnosis of disease conditions based on the complaints narrated by the patient along with the results of a few relevant laboratory tests and the patient’s medical history. It must be understood that this software does not aim to give a confirmatory diagnosis in most cases, but only a probable diagnosis. Several conditions are supported by laboratory tests, which in turn, may enable the user to make a confirmatory diagnosis. It should, therefore, be seen only as a first line of intervention whereby the patient, equipped with a probable diagnosis, can then go on to the next level, like referral to a specialist, when required. Several minor or common illnesses will be treated at this level on instructions given by the software.
    As of now, the diseases covered by EDPS2000 are based on the common disease patterns seen in Southern Zone of Tanzania since it was known that, this software was designed in United States over the past ten years. This list of approximately 300 diseases presently covered by the software is given in Appendix E. The system will be maintained by e-CCDO Online. Experience shown that, the software has been extensively tested with over 10,000 patients in three leading hospitals in India for accuracy and acceptance by both the user and the patient. Appendix D summarizes the results of the tests, and the comments from the CCDO management hospital.
    Another aspect of the EDPS software is maintaining a database of doctors and hospitals/clinics to which referrals are made. By prior arrangements made by CCDO with doctors and hospitals/clinics, we hope to cut down on the cost and hardship incurred by the patients.

    5.1 Who Can use the EDPS2000 Software?
    The EDPS2000 software has been designed to be extremely user friendly. Persons involved in primary health care in remote, rural and backward areas will be able to use it easily. The basic qualifications expected of a person who will use this software are knowledge of English, a simple understanding of computers, and a strong motivation and aptitude for primary health care. It does not require someone with a medical degree or even formally trained health workers and nurses. Users will undergo specific training to use the software, and will have extensive hands-on training before they are allowed to use it in the field.
    There are two main persons involved in the use of this software: the patient and the interviewer (computer user). The software will prompt the interviewer with the questions to ask. The software will keep on evaluating the answers and posing new questions until it has narrowed the list of possibilities down to a probable diagnosis or a future course of action. The interviewer is, therefore, passive in this process. This feature has been incorporated by design to minimize the medical knowledge expected of the interviewer. For cases referred to specialists or hospitals, the interviewer is responsible for following up and making sure that the paperwork, diagnosis, and results of lab tests are entered into the computer to maintain the full and up to date medical history.

    6.0 Cost Breakdown
    The following 3 types of costs are associated with the project:
    (1) EDPS2000 Development Cost: The CCDO has already invested 12500$ in the design, development, and enhancement of EDPS2000. Further development/enhancement costs are also likely to be substantial. We are not including these development costs in our estimates and in the funding request.

    (2) Pre-operating costs per PHC:
    a) Project Coordinator (1/5 time physician ) 8200$
    b) Paramedic / computer operator 1900$
    c) Nurse medical assistant 8500$
    d) Lab technician 8500$
    e) Transportation 77$
    f) Consumables 1900$
    g) Other 1800$

    Total operating cost per annum 8200$
    a) Improvement of PHC 1900$
    b) Solar panel & batteries 8500$
    c) Lab for urine, blood & stool tests 7500$
    d) Computers & printers 1500$
    e) Medical suppliers, stationary etc 6200$
    f) Furniture and fixtures 6800$

    Total 71477$

    (3) Operating Costs per annum per PHC:

    6.1 Total Costs
    We propose to amortize the pre-operating costs over five years. Based on this, we expect an expenditure of $ 12343 per annum per PHC in the initial year. To our above estimates we add a 8% per annum increase in cost due to inflation, and a 20% for expenses towards a) maintaining Support and Training Centers (see Appendix B), b) coordination and monitoring of PHCs, c) enhancement of EDPS2000 (see Appendix D), d) development and distribution of health education materials, and e) administration and fiscal management of the project (see Appendix A). The total then amounts to $36000 per PHC over a five-year period.

    6.2 Cost Recovery for Sustainable Operation in the Future
    In the first phase, while we build trust in the PHCs, patients will be asked to pay a good faith fee of $ 2- 3 per visit to the PHC, and the community will be asked to provide volunteer labor for upkeep and upgrades on the building. We anticipate using the money collected by the PHCs from the patients for community services and for future development. The idea being that anything we collect from them, we reinvest in the project and for their immediate welfare. We anticipate that by the second phase, 2012 – 2016, the community served by a given PHC would have learned its value to them. We anticipate that they will be willing to pay $10 per visit by then. Assuming that on average 30 patients visit a given PHC per day, this fee would aggregate to over $ 300 (466800Tshs) per year (about 50% of its annual operating cost).
    7.0 Project Beneficiaries
    The children and women of the rural and urban areas will benefit. It is expected that about 470,000 people will benefit from the proposed project intervention since all the community leaders, both men and women were involved in identifying the priority needs before formulating the Project and the Project was socially accepted by the community and there shall be no any obstruction during the project implementation if this project will be equipped all proposed laboratory medical and maternity kits including clinical analyzer products, medical consumable, hospital furniture, ultrasound scanner products, autoclave sterilizer, EGG machine, surgical equipments, monitoring equipment products, laboratory glassware’s, laboratory chemicals, E-ray generator, and other equipments.

    7.1 Management of Operations
    A Steering Committee consisting of representatives from the donors, The Children Care Development Organization, government officials, and local communities will oversee the project. An International Advisory Board will assist this committee in setting priorities and policies. Day-to-day operations will be carried out by a management team under the supervision of the CCDO. Funds received will be credited to a Trust account in a bank(s), and will be operated by the CCDO. The CCDO will have the overall responsibility for executing the project, and will coordinate its activities with government agencies and other NGOs participating in the program.

    8.0 Expected Result
    • Villagers’ health status will be improved through the provision of health education and safe-motherhood education. With health care easily accessible by most of the population within the village, the health quality of the villagers will be improved. Mother and child health services will be improved and it expected that maternal and infant mortality rates will be reduced in the village and in nearby communities. Health governance in the village improved.
    • Improved primary health care services and improved hospital services
    • Equipped all necessity hospital tool kits and reduced HIV and AIDS infection
    • Available donor partner / hospital investor
    • Village development and Project committee trained on project implementation and on monitoring Support and train village health committee.
    • Provide the first in-depth, systematic, prospective account of decision making for ill children and women with AIDS and cancer that includes the perspectives of all the stakeholders (clinicians, parents, patients, institutions).
    • Disseminate results of the study/ test through a book-length monograph.
    • Develop recommendations for guidelines for including parents and children in decision-making that reflects not only their desires, but also the practices and concerns of physicians and other health care professionals.
    • Disseminate evidence-based recommendations for clinical care and policy through publications in CCDO website/ Newsmagazine and presentations at conferences, workshops, trainings and its project partners/donors.
    • Reduced and improved childhood cancer cases
    • Reduced women breast cancer and controlled communicable diseases
    • Improved childhood hospital platform for computer games and other interactive multi-media and improved provision of Healthcare to OVCs and PLWHAs, basic health education and family planning control, adequate shelter to OVC, improved psychosocial of OVC and PLWHAs and also reduced stigmatization and increased customers to the center

    9.0 Project Sustainability
    For organizational sustainability, committee members will be selected among the people who believe in International Children Primary Health and Research Center is dedicated, sincere and hard working. Also there shall be minor charges for those medical students coming to attend our trainings, medical research trainings, health development research project proposal for funding training, workshops, medical check up and treatments, CCDO pharmacy shop, registration fees, but free medical services will be offered to vulnerable childhood, AIDS families, and breast cancer coming from destitute poverty families.
    10.0 Project Requirements
    This project requires to be supported only hospital tool kits aid and such required equipments materials aid are as follows;
    1. Clinical Analyzer Products – automatic chemistry analyzer, chemistry analyzer, hematology analyzer, Hy-3400 Hematology Analyzer, Micro plate Reader, Hemaglobin Meter, Micro Plate Incubator, ESR Analyzer, Urine Analyzer, Real Time PCR Machine, Thermal cycler, and Electrophoresis system etc.
    2. Ultrasound Scanner Products – Palmtop ultrasound scanner, laptop ultrasound scanner, ultrasound scanner, color Doppler, trolley digital ultrasound scanner.
    3. Monitoring Equipment Products – Fingertip pulse oximeter, handheld pulse oximeter, tabletop pulse oximeter, NIBP monitor, patient monitor, blood pressure monitor, glucose monitor, ambulatory blood pressure monitor, fetal Doppler, fetal monitor, fetal and maternal monitor
    4. ECG Machine – Twelve channels ECG machine, six channel, three channels ECG machine, one channel ECG machine, and holter ECG monitoring system.
    5. Surgical Equipment – Mayo or Small Standard Needle Holder, Mosquito Curved Hemostat, Iris Scissors or Small Surgical Scissors, Tissue Forceps with teeth, Disposable Razor, Disposable Scalpel, Suture 3-Pack 3-0 Silk or Nylon w/ Curved Cutting Needle, Surgical Staple Gun (optional), Betadine, 4 oz. bottle, Mastisol, 1 oz. bottle, 20 cc multiple use plastic vials 1% Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection USP with preservative (methylparaben), 5 cc plastic syringes, Needles, variety pack including one 18ga x 1.5, two 22ga x 1.5, two 25ga x 1.5, and one 27ga x 1.5, Anesthesia machine, portable ventilator, ventilator, electric operating table 2000, electrical operating table 2000E, orinary operating table (BS), multi-purpose operating table (3001C), shadowless operating lamp, cold light operating lamp, emergency operating lamp, examination lamp, and electrosurgical unit (RFS-3800K).
    6. Autoclave Sterilizer – Portable pressure steam sterilizer, tabletop pressure steam sterilizer, hot air sterilizer and dry heat sterilizer (GK9040).
    7. Lab Equipment –Binocular microscope (XSP-126), blood mixer, low speed centrifuge, magnetic stirrer, low speed centrifuge (KA-1000), Microhematocrit, Electronic Balance, Biochemical Incubator, Electric Heated Thermostatic Incubator, Vacuum Drying Oven, Dryer Oven, Distiller and Water Bath.
    8. Other Equipment – Infant incubator, Infant radiant warmer (HKN-90), neonate bilirubin phototherapy, sperm quality analyzer, colposcope, mammary gland diagnosis, suction machine, oxygen concentrator, nebulizer, syringe pump (500I), syringe pump 500II, and infusion pump 600II.
    9. Medical Consumable – Disposable syringe set with needle, disposal infusion set, bandage, vacuum blood tube, biochemical reagent, hematology reagent, rapid test kit (fertility test), rapid test kit (drug abuse test), rapid test (tumor marker test), and rapid test kit (infectious disease).
    10. Hospital Furniture i.e. wheelchair, hospital Bed (A4), Hospital Bed (A6), Multi-Purpose Traction Table, Traction Bed (Model 2000b), Folding Screen, Medical Toilet, Eye Chart Box, Weight Height Scale (Sh-8007), Parturition Bed (Qcz-83a) Etc.
    11. Laboratory Glasswares
    12. Laboratory Chemicals
    13. An X-ray generator – X-ray computed tomography, CT-X-Ray scan (positron emission tomography).

    11.0 CCDO Contribution
    The Children Care Development Organisation (CCDO) has managed to mobilize its resources from different local community stakeholders and community itself to construct International Children Primary Health and Aids Research Center in Iringa region at Mkimbizi village and the center was cost the amounting Tshs.42500,000/= Equivalents to 27314$. Again, CCDO has managed to equip 48 computers to the completed International Children Primary Health and Aids Research Center including internet connection to the laboratory room, physician’s examining room, physician’s examining room, prenatal and pregnancy care room, laboratory rooms, X-ray room, Dentist’s room, vaccination room, pharmacy shop, operating theater, waiting patients room, administration block, and television was connected to hospital conference hall, training conference hall, hospital doctors and nurses reaction center, and in general hospital meeting room. In this project we expect to incur into consignment/ shipment cost based on this application.
    12.0 In Setting up Our Partnership
    In setting up our partnership in this project it was agreed that CCDO management including hospital staffs will be trained on how to maintain reciprocal exchange of skills, knowledge and experience in this partnership, on how to maintain the given medical equipments, training on how to operate the supported equipments and maintenance of staffs on how to meet our partnership goals, adolescent sexuality reproductive health and family planning education, ethical issues in international collaborative health care research and on how to institutionalize ethical review of health care research including practical ethics committee participation in this partnership, ethical issues in women’s rights health care research and children health rights issues, AIDS research and report documentation/ reporting training, monitoring and evaluation training, and the donor partner will execute this training and not only to the CCDO and hospital management but also to the traditional birth attendants, midwives learners, nurses, e-hospital management operation and communication, health improvement delivery services, to engage in HIV/.AIDS research activities and other activities triggered to surgical operation, laboratory test, X-ray experiment and etc. The project partner and the CCDO will arrange together to provide this training with budget support from CCDO sources of fund and its partnership.

    The CCDO will continues to mobilize its sources of fund with project partner and most of fund will come from our internet/ tailoring centers, computer training youth centre, and CCDO School including the current project of soft loans provision to the Iringa youth and women revolving fund, other money will come from our entrepreneurs training centers we have in Town while the major fund are expected to be obtained from our hospital services. Those entire funds will satisfy our need to procure medical equipments from abroad while our partnership will take the role to procure such materials to CCDO hospital and our school. Again, we expect to secure subsidy medical equipments from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in Tanzania. Since the CCDO management team has positive image to the Government and in this partnership we expect that the Government through its Ministry of Customs will provide exemption tax to those requested medical material aid and other equipments that will be procured for our hospital and school. Thus, CCDO will be the customs waivers in this partnership with better collaboration from you while CCDO will be named as the receiver all those procured medical and school equipments by the Project partner. Also, CCDO have no existing partnership that’s why we request you for further partnership action.

    Looking for forward to hear from you.
    Majaliwa Mbogella
    Children Care Development ORGANISATION
    P.o.bOX 1751
    Iringa, Tanzania

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